Tooth fossils

This is a surprising and unexpected study, showing that the most interesting results can arise from the unlikeliest areas. (New Scientist, 19th April 2014).

Not long ago, when archaeologist found an interesting skeleton, they would clean the plaque off the teeth to examine them properly, just like your dentist does, and like we ourselves try to do with toothpaste and floss.

image of teeth - may be fossils


The Bengalese finch is a very interesting little bird. We know that it was only domesticated 250 years ago (from the wild white-rumped munia), but while the breeders have been developing its plumage, the birds themselves have been developing their songs, so that they now have a complex and beautiful song, compared to the munia’s plain and simple calls. Only the males sing, and it seems that the females select their mates on the basis of the quality of their song and tone, and the nicer the song, the more young they produce.

There is a video of this here

This simple story has a number of very interesting implications


There is another article in New Scientist about the work of a remarkable scientist called Bruce Bradley, who lived in Arizona as a child, and was fascinated by the Native American flint tools and arrowheads that are common there. So, he started to try to copy them. He is now at the University of Exeter in the UK, and he is a master flint-knapper, and he teaches this to some of his students. Here is a video of him at work

He has continued to study flints, and from copying the different styles that are found, and using the dating information about them, he has discovered clues to the development of consciousness:-


History Introduction

When I started this site, I never thought there would be a history section – I’m not very interested in history books !

However, as I’ve gone along,  I’ve realised that some of what I’ve written forms a strange sort of spiritual history, and I have put those pages in sequential order and copied them here from a range of different sections.



I'm setting up a good old-fashioned discussion forum as a companion to this site, and this is one of the questions I want to ask people (to start the ball rolling)

What if I have spare money ?

What are ethical things I could do with it ?
Every action has consequences - what good consequences are possible, and what negative ones arise  ?

Seven Laws of Money

Normally we think “ You get a job and earn money, and then you can buy everything you need” This is a classic example of conditioning, and of simplistic thinking, and it’s very poor advice.

Money is very interesting …… and here is some better advice about it – the Seven Laws of Money (I extracted these from a book of the same name by Michael Phillips – it’s still available, and still useful, though very dated now)


In a rational world, how many people do we need to provide all the goods and services that we need ? It seems to be that we don’t need everyone in order to be able to supply all our needs - this is one of the main lessons of the Coronvirus crisis.  Automation and artificial intelligence add to the challenge. What can be done about this, first in financial terms, second, what will the “spare people” do ?

In any given population, some are too young to work, and some are too old, and others need care for one reason or another – perhaps a total of 50% of the population fall into one of these categories (included their assorted parents at home, family carers, etc.).

Levels of Money

Elsewhere I tried to write about the levels of software – the 7 (?) levels between the basic bit and what you see on your desktop or tablet – I then tried to extend this to the levels of thought between the basic neurons and the thoughts and discourses we all actually have in our minds

It’s quite a good parallel, so I though I’d try and do the same in some other areas – first with money, where we have different names for money, depending on a combination of how much we have and how we are trying to use it :-

Main Laws of Economics

I have taken these from Wikipedia which lists 32 economics laws. - link to page

I have chosen a few and tried to put them into plain language or given examples

Law of Supply and Demand

In a competitive market, the unit price for a particular item will vary until it settles at a point where the quantity demanded (at the current price) will equal the quantity supplied (at the current price), resulting in an economic equilibrium for price and quantity transacted.

Economics and Money

Economics and Money

This section only has a few articles, first on the main laws of Economics and the hidden hand (drawn from popular sources), then articles by myself on "levels of money", and employment (G)

There are also an article from another section on the "7 Laws of Money" which gives an alternative view, and one raising some questions for the forum. There are also a few articles that I’ll try to write as time goes by - I'm trying to persuade myself to persevere by announcing them now !

(I don't have much to say about macro-economics, the national and global economy, etc.)