Discourse Planes. Different strands, and different sections of strands, operate on different discourse planes …… science, politics, media, education, everyday life, business life, administration, are all examples of different discourse planes. The media often takes ‘everyday discourse’ about events and sensationalises it (in the yellow press), dressing it up in a popular form. By some mechanism, this seems to regulate the everyday thinking of people and exercises influence on the political agenda and ‘what is conductible’ (that is, what discourses and positions are permissible at any one time).
Discourse Position. The category of a discourse position can refer to a specific ideological position of a person, plane or medium. In particular
- The discourse position is the (ideological) location from which people participate in the discourse and assess it. This applies to individuals and also groups or institutions, which may also take part in discourses.
- The discourse position is typified by particular discursive entanglements which feed on the previously, current and expected experiences of the participant. This is often entirely predictable.
- The discourse position is a result of the person’s previous involvement in various discourses in which the individual has been subjected (involved). The person has been ‘knitted into’ the discourse, and has ‘knitted in’ the discourse into their own position
- What begins as a discourse position may develop further (and be fixed) into an ideological or institutional position.
- Correspondingly, this applies to the media and to entire discourse strands, which form certain (implicit) discourse positions, which shape overall reporting (such as, there is always opposition to price increases – this is an implicit position)
- Groups and individuals can assess and use discourse positions in different ways
- Hegemonial discourses might see a supermarket as a positive symbol of wealth.
- Anti-hegemonial discourse might see the supermarket negatively (idealising small shops and small farmers, etc.)
- These deviating positions relate to the same basic discursive structure, that of the supermarket
- These discourse positions belong (in a rough form) to the general knowledge of the population – they usually distrust both of the extreme positions
- Discourse positions within a dominant or hegemonial discourse are usually rather homogeneous. This can be seen as a function of a hegemony – its members will agree
- Not to rock the boat
- Not to cast doubt on the ruling economic system
- Discourse positions which DO deviate from the dominant are sometimes assigned to the camp of ‘all opposing discourses’, whether they fit there or not
- However, opposing discourses (and elements of them) can be introduced subversively into the hegemonial discourse (e.g. the cliché ‘time is money’ can be turned into a criticism of capitalism)
- Some opposing discourses are allowed to exist, for example, the organic discourse has been allowed to enter supermarkets, but in a tightly controlled way in terms of packaging and shelf-life – it has to fit with the ‘supermarket paradigm’ to get in.